Christine M. Drea

Earl D. McLean Professor

External address: 
129 Bio Sci Bldg, Durham, NC 27708
Internal office address: 
Duke Box 90383, 08 Bio Sci Bldg, Durham, NC 27708-0383
(919) 660-7367


I have two broad research interests, sexual differentiation and
social behavior, both focused on hyenas and primates. I am
particularly interested in unusual species in which the females
display a suite of masculinized characteristics, including male-
like or exaggerated external genitalia and social dominance.
The study of naturally occurring hormones in such unique
mammals can reveal general processes of hormonal activity,
expressed in genital morphology, reproductive development,
and social behavior. Taking a combined laboratory and field
approach allows me to relate captive data to various facets of
the animals' natural habitat, thereby enhancing the ecological
validity of assay procedures and enriching interpretation in an
evolutionary framework. The goal of comparative studies of
hyenas and lemurs is to help elucidate the mechanisms of
mammalian sexual differentiation.

My research program in social behavior focuses on social
learning and group cohesion. Using naturalistic tasks that I
present to captive animals in socially relevant contexts, I can
investigate how social interaction modulates behavior, problem-
solving, and cognitive performance. By studying and comparing
models of carnivore and primate foraging, I can better
understand how group-living animals modify their actions to
meet environmental demands. A primary interest is determining
whether similar factors, related to having a complex social
organization, influence learning and performance across
taxonomic groups. I am also interested in how animals learn
rules of social conduct and maintain social cohesion, as
evidenced by their patterns of behavioral developmental, the
intricate balance between aggression and play, the expression of
scent marking, and the social facilitation or inhibition of

Degrees & Credentials

  • Ph.D., Emory University 1991

  • M.A., Emory University 1990

  • B.S., University of Maryland, College Park 1984

Linking Dietary Quality to the Gut Microbiome of Endangered Malagasy Primates awarded by Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2017

Mechanisms of Female Dominance and Reproductive Skew in a Cooperative Breeder awarded by National Science Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2010 to 2016

REU Supplement: Mechanisms of Social Dynamics in Meerkats awarded by National Science Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2010 to 2016

Doctoral Dissertation Improvement: The Behavioral And Social Effects of Hormone Manipulation in Female-Dominant Lemurs awarded by National Science Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2013 to 2015

Doctoral Dissertation Improvement: Impact of Genetic Health on Parasite Prevalence, Diversity, & Burden in Lemur catta awarded by National Science Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2012 to 2015

Olfactory Communication in Primates awarded by National Science Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2007 to 2010

Patterns of lemur reproductive and behavioral development awarded by National Science Foundation (Principal Investigator). 2004 to 2007

Davies, CS, Smyth, KN, Greene, LK, Walsh, DA, Mitchell, J, Clutton-Brock, T, and Drea, CM. "Exceptional endocrine profiles characterise the meerkat: sex, status, and reproductive patterns." Scientific reports 6 (October 18, 2016): 35492-. Full Text

Greene, LK, Wallen, TW, Moresco, A, Goodwin, TE, and Drea, CM. "Reproductive endocrine patterns and volatile urinary compounds of Arctictis binturong: discovering why bearcats smell like popcorn." Die Naturwissenschaften 103.5-6 (June 2016): 37-. Full Text

Greene, LK, Grogan, KE, Smyth, KN, Adams, CA, Klager, SA, and Drea, CM. "Mix it and fix it: functions of composite olfactory signals in ring-tailed lemurs." Royal Society open science 3.4 (April 20, 2016): 160076-. Full Text Open Access Copy

Grogan, KE, McGinnis, GJ, Sauther, ML, Cuozzo, FP, and Drea, CM. "Next-generation genotyping of hypervariable loci in many individuals of a non-model species: technical and theoretical implications." BMC genomics 17 (March 8, 2016): 204-. Full Text

delBarco-Trillo, J, Greene, LK, Goncalves, IB, Fenkes, M, Wisse, JH, Drewe, JA, Manser, MB, Clutton-Brock, T, and Drea, CM. "Beyond aggression: Androgen-receptor blockade modulates social interaction in wild meerkats." Hormones and behavior 78 (February 2016): 95-106. Full Text

Drea, CM. "D'scent of man: A comparative survey of primate chemosignaling in relation to sex." Hormones and Behavior 68 (February 1, 2015): 117-133. (Review) Full Text

Drea, CM. "D'scent of man: a comparative survey of primate chemosignaling in relation to sex." Hormones and behavior 68 (February 2015): 117-133. Full Text

Crawford, JC, and Drea, CM. "Baby on board: olfactory cues indicate pregnancy and fetal sex in a non-human primate." Biology letters 11.2 (February 2015): 20140831-. Full Text Open Access Copy