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Krupenye, C., Tan. J. & Hare, B. 2018. Bonobos voluntarily hand food to others but not toys or tools. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. [Download]

Krupenye, C. & Hare, B. 2018. Bonobos prefer individuals that hinder others over those that help. Current Biology. [Download]


Tan, J., Ariely, D., & Hare, B. 2017. Bonobos respond prosocially toward members of other groups. Scientific Reports. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-15320-w. [Download]

Hare, B. & Yamamoto, S. 2017. Bonobos: Unique in Mind, Brain, and Behavior.  Oxford University Press.

Lucca, K., MacLean, E.L., & Hare, B. 2017. The development and flexibility of gaze alternations in bonobos and chimpanzees. Developmental Science. [Download]

MacLean, E.L., Herrmann, E., Suchindran, S., & Hare, B. 2017. Individual differences in cooperative communicative skills are more similar between dogs and humans than chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.01.005. [Download]

Hare, B. 2017. Survival of the Friendliest: Homo sapiens Evolved via Selection for Prosociality. Annual Review of Psychology. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044201. [Download]


Reddy, R.B., Krupenye, C., MacLean, E.L., & Hare, B. 2016. No evidence for contagious yawning in lemurs. Animal Cognition. doi: 10.1007/s10071-016-0986-1. [Download]

Pontzer, H., Brown, M.H., Raichlen, D.A., Dunsworth, H., Hare, B., Walker, K., Luke, A., Dugas, L.R., Durazo-Arvizu, R., Schoeller, D., Plange-Rhule, J., Bovet, P., Forrester, T.E., Lambert, E.V., Thompson, M.E., Shumaker, R.W., & Ross, S.R. 2016. Metabolic acceleration and the evolution of human brain size and life history." Nature. doi: 10.1038/nature17654. [Download]

Rosati, A.G., & Hare, B. 2016. Reward currency modulates human risk preferences. Evolution and Human Behavior. [Download]

Krupenye, C., Rosati, A.G., & Hare, B. 2016. What's in a frame? Response to Kanngiesser & Woike (2016). Biology Letters. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2015.0959. [Download]


Bowie, A.C., McMullen, C., Belais, R., Andre, C, Minesi, F., Ngalulua, A., Park, L., Rimoin, A., Kennedy-Stoskopf, S., Hare, B.A., & Woods, C.W. 2015. Retrospective analysis of human-bonobo zoonotic pathogen transmission in the Democratic Republic of Congo. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygeine.

Reddy, R.B., MacLean, E.L., Sandel, A.A., & Hare, B. 2015. Social inhibitory control in five lemur species. Primates. doi: 10.1007/s10329-015-0467-1. [Download]

Tan, J., Kwetuenda, S., & Hare, B. 2015. Preference or paradigm? Bonobos show no evidence of other-regard in the standard prosocial choice task. Behaviour. doi: 10.1163/1568539X-00003230. [Download]

Schroepfer-Walker, K., Wobber, V., & Hare, B. 2015. Experimental evidence that grooming and play are social currency in bonobos and chimpanzees. Behaviour. doi: 10.1163/1568539X-00003258. [Download]

MacLean, E.L. & Hare, B. 2015. Bonobos and chimpanzees exploit helpful but not prohibitive gestures. Behaviour. doi: 10.1163/1568539X-00003203. [Download]

Krupenye, C., Rosati, A.G., & Hare, B. 2015. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects. Biology Letters. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2014.0527. [Download]


Bray, J., Krupenye, C., & Hare, B. 2014. Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) exploit information about what others can see but not what they can hear. Animal Cognition. doi: 10.1007/s10071-013-0705-0. [Download]

Cieri, R., Churchill, S., Franciscus, R., Tan, J., & Hare, B. 2014. Craniofacial Feminization, Social Tolerance, and the Origins of Behavioral Modernity. Current Anthropology. doi: 10.1086/677209. [Download]

MacLean, E., Hare, B., Nunn, C., Addessi, E., Amici, F., Anderson, R., Aureli, F., Baker, J., Bania, A., Barnard, A., Boogert, N., Brannon, E., Bray, E., Bray, J., Brent, L., Burkart, J., Call, J., Cantlon, J., Cheke, L., Clayton, N., Delgado, M., DiVinceti, L., Fujita, K., Herrmann, E., Hiramatsu, C., Jacobs, L., Jordan, K., Laude, J., Leimfruber, K., Messer, E., Moura, A., Ostojic, L., Picard, A., Platt. M., Plotnik, J., Range, F., Reader, S., Reddy, R., Sandel, A., Santos, L., Schumann, K., Seed, A., Sewall, K., Shaw, R., Slocombe, K., Su, Y., Takimoto, A., Tan, J., Tao, R., van Schaik, C., Viranyi, Z., Visalberghi, E., Wade, J., Watanabe, A., Widness, J., Young, J., Zentall, T., & Zhao, Y. 2014. The evolution of self-control. PNAS. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1323533111. [Download]

Pontzer, H., Raichlen, D., Gordon, A., Schroepfer-Walker, K., Hare, B., O'Neill, M., Muldoon, K., Dunsworth, H., Wood, B., Isler, K., Burkart, J., Irwin, M., Shumaker, R., Lonsdorf, E., & Ross, S. 2014. Primate energy expenditure and life history. PNAS. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1316940111. [Download]

Rosati, A., Rodriguez, K., & Hare, B. 2014. The ecology of spatial memory in four lemur species. Animal Cognition. doi: 10.1008/s10071-014-0727-2. [Download]


Bray, E., MacLean, E., & Hare, B. 2013. Context specificity of inhibitory control in dogs. Animal Cognition. doi: 10.1007/s10071-013-0633-z. [Download]

Herrmann, E., Keupp, S., Hare, B., Vaish, A., & Tomasello, M. 2013. Direct and Indirect Reputation Formation in Nonhuman Great Apes and Human Children. Journal of Comparative Psychology. doi: 10.1037/a0028929. [Download]

Maclean, E. & Hare, B. 2013. Spontaneous triadic engagement in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). 2013. Journal of Comparative Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0030935. [Download]

MacLean, E., Sandel, A., Bray, J., Oldenkamp, R., & Reddy, R. 2013. Group Size Predicts Social but Not Nonsocial Cognition in Lemurs. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66359. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066359. [Download]

Rosati, A. & Hare, B. 2013. Chimpanzees and Bonobos Exhibit Emotional Responses to Decision Outcomes. PLoS One. 8, e63058. [Download]

Tan, J. & Hare, B. 2013. Bonobos share with strangers. PLoS One. 8, e51922. [Download]

Wobber, V., Hare, B., Lipson, S., Wrangham, R., & Ellison, P. 2013. Different ontogenetic patterns of testosterone production reflect divergent male reproductive strategies in chimpanzees and bonobos. Physiology & Behavior. 116-117, 44-53. [Download]

Wobber, V., Herrmann, E., Hare, B., Wrangham, R., & Tomasello, M. 2013. Differences in the early cognitive development of children and great apes. Developmental Psychobiology. doi: 10.1002/dev.21125. [Download]


Hare, B, Wobber, V, & Wrangham, R. 2012. The self-domestication hypothesis: evolution of bonobo psychology is due to selection against aggression. Animal Behavior. 1-13. [Download]

MacLean, E., Matthews, L., Hare, B., Nunn, C., Anderson, R., Aureli, F., Brannon, E.,Call, J., Drea, C., Emery, N., Haun, D., Herrmann, E., Jacobs, L., Platt, M., Rosati, A., Sandel, A., Schroepfer, K., Seed, A., Tan, J., van Schaik, C., & Wobber, V. 2011. How does cognition evolve?: phylogenetic comparative psychology. Animal Cognition. 15, 223-238. [Download]

Maclean, E & Hare, B. 2012. Bonobos and chimpanzees infer the target of an actor's attention. Animal Behaviour. 83, 345-353. [Download]

Nunn, C. & Hare, B. 2012. Pathogen flow: what we need to know. American Journal of Primatology. doi: 10.1002/ajp.22070. [Download]

Rosati, A. & Hare, B. Divergent spatial memory development in chimpanzees and bonobos. Developmental Science. 15(6), 840-853. [Download]

Rosati, A. & Hare, B. Decision-making across social contexts: competition increases risk-prone choices in chimpanzees and bonobos. Animal Behaviour. 84. 869-879. [Download]

Rosati, A., Wobber, V., Warneken, F., Melis, A., Herrmann, E., Kaminski, J., Tan, J., Krupenye, C., Schroepfer, K., & Hare, B. 2012. Assessing the psychological health of captive and wild apes: a response to Ferdowsian et al. in press. Journal of Comparative Psychology. doi: 10.1037/a0029144. [Download]

Woods, V. & Hare, B. Think outside the lab: African sanctuaries as a new resource for non-invasive research on great apes. In Encyclopedia of Applied Animal Behavior and Welfare (Ed. by D. Mills). CABI Publishing.


Hare, B. 2011. From hominoid to hominid mind: what changed and why. Annual Reviews of Anthropology. 40: 293-309. [Download]

Hare, B. & Tan, J. 2011. What cooperative abilities did we inherit as an ape? The Primate Mind. De Waal, F. & Ferrari, P. (eds). Harvard Press. [Download]

Herrmann, E., Hare, B. Cisseski, J., & Tomasello, M. 2011. The origins of human temperament: children avoid novelty more than other apes. Developmental Science. 14, 1393-1405. [Download]

Sandel, A., Maclean, E., & Hare, B. 2011. Convergent evolution in the social cognitive abilities of lemurs. Animal Behaviour. 81, 925-931. [Download]

Schroepfer, K., Rosati, A., Chartrand, T., & Hare, B. 2011. Use of "entertainment" chimpanzees distorts public perception regarding their conservation status. PLoS One. 6, 26048. [Download]

Wobber, T., & Hare, B. 2011. Psychological health of orphan bonobos and chimpanzees in African sanctuaries. PLoS One, 6, e17147. [Download]

Woods, V. & Hare, B. 2011. Bonobo but not chimpanzee infants use socio-sexual contact with peers. Primates. 52, 111-116. [Download]


Hare, B. Rosati, A. Breaur, J., Kaminski, J., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. 2010. Dogs are more skilled than wolves with human social cues: a response to Udell et al. (2008) and Wynne et al. (2008). Animal Behaviour. 79, e1-e6. [Download]

Hare, B. & Kwetuenda, S. 2010. Bonobos voluntarily share their own food with others. Current Biology. 20, R230-231. [Download]

Herrmann, E., Hare, B. Call, J., & Tomasello, M. 2010. Differences in the cognitive skills of bonobos and chimpanzees. PLoS One. 5(8), e12438. [Download]

Herrmann, E., Call, J., Hernández-Lloreda, M., Hare, B. , & Tomasello, M. 2010. Cognition in chimpanzees and children has different factor structure. Psychological Science. 21, 102-110. [Download]

Herrmann, E., Call, J., Hernández-Lloreda, M., Hare, B. , & Tomasello, M. 2010. The structure of individual differences in the cognitive abilities of children and chimpanzees. Psychological Science. 21(1) 102-110. [Download]

Melis, A., Warneken, F., & Hare, B. 2010.  Collaboration and helping in chimpanzees. In: The Chimpanzee Mind (Ed. by E. Lonsdorf, S. Ross, & T. Matsuzawa). Springer. [Download]

Rosati, A. & Hare, B. 2010. Chimpanzee and bonobos distinguish between risk and ambiguity. Proceedings of Royal Society: Biology Letters. [Download]

Rosati, A., & Hare, B. 2010. Social cognition: From behavior-reading to mind-reading. In: Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience (Ed. by G. Koob, M. Le Moal, & R. Thompson). Erlbaum. 3, 263-268. [Download]

Rosati, A., Santos, L., & Hare, B. 2010. Primate social cognition: Thirty years after Premack and Woodruff. In: Cognitive Neuroethology (Ed. by A. Gazenifar & M. Platt). Oxford University Press. 117-142. [Download]

Vlamings, P., Hare, B., & Call, J. 2010. Reaching around barriers: The performance of great apes and 3- to 5-year-old children on an inhibitory control task. Animal Cognition. 13, 273-285. [Download]

Wobber, V., Wrangham, R. & Hare, B. 2010. Application of the heterochrony framework to the study of behavior and cognition. Communicative and Integrative Biology. 3(4) 1-2. [Download]

Wobber, V., Wrangham, R., & Hare, B. 2010. Evidence for delayed development of social behavior and cognition in bonobos relative to chimpanzees. Current Biology. 20, 226-230. [Download]

Wobber, V., Hare, B., Maboto, J., Lipson, S. Wrangham, R., & Ellison, P. 2010. Differential changes in steriod hormones before competition in bonobos and chimpanzees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107(28): 12457-12462. [Download]

Wobber, V., Wrangham, R., & Hare, B. 2010. Bonobos exhibit delayed development of social behavior and cognition relative to chimpanzees. Current Biology. 20, 226-230. [Download]

Woods, V. & Hare, B. 2010. Bonobo but not chimpanzee infants use socio-sexual contact with peers. Primates. [Download]


Hare, B. 2009. What is the effect of affect on bonobo and chimpanzee problem solving? The Neurobiology of the Umwelt: how living beings perceive the world. (Ed. by A. Berthoz & Y. Christen). Springer. 89-102. [Download]

McIntyre, M., Herrmann, E., Wobber, V., Halbwax, M., Mohamba, C., deSousa, N., Atenica, R., Cox, D. & Hare, B. 2009. Bonobos have more human-like second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D) than chimpanzees: a hypothesized indication of lower prenatal androgens. Journal of Human Evolution. 56, 361-365. [Download]

Melis, A., Hare, B., & Tomasello, M. 2009. Chimpanzees negotiate in a bargaining game. Evolution and Human Behaviour. 30, 381-392. [Download]

Rosati, A. & Hare, B. 2009. Looking past the model species: diversity in gaze following skills across primates. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 19, 45-51. [Download]

Wobber, V. & Hare, B. 2009. Testing the social dog hypothesis: are dogs also more skilled than chimpanzees in non-communicative social tasks? Behavioral Processes. 81, 423-428. [Download]

Woods, V. & Hare, B. 2009. Out of our minds: how did Homo sapiens come down from the trees, and why did no one follow? In: Innovative Science (Ed. by M. Brockman), Vintage Books. 170-184. [Download]


Andre, C., Kamate, C., Mabonzo, P., Morel, D., & Hare, B. 2008. The conservation value of Lola ya Bonobo Sanctuary. The Bonobos: behavior, ecology and conservation. (Ed. by Furuichi, T., & Thompson, J.) Springer. 303-322.

Hare, B. 2008. Review of Baboon Metaphysics. (By D. Cheney & R. Seyfarth). Animal Behaviour. 76, 253-255. [Download]

Heilbronner, S., Rosati, A., Stevens, J., Hare, B., & Hauser, M. 2008. A fruit in the hand or two in the bush? Ecological pressures select for divergent risk preferences in chimpanzees and bonobos. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biology Letters. 4, 246-249. [Download]

Herrmann, E., Call, J., Hernández-Lloreda, M., Hare, B., & Tomasello, M. 2008. Humans are valid experimenters for human-nonhuman ape comparisons. Science. 319, 570. [Download]

Melis, A., Hare, B., & Tomasello, M. 2008. Do chimpanzees reciprocate received favors? Animal Behaviour. 76, 951-962. [Download]

Ross, S., Lukas, K., Longsdorf, E., Stoinski, T., Hare, B., Shumaker R., & Goodall, J. 2008. Inappropriate use and portrayal of chimpanzees. Science. 319, 1487. [Download]

Wobber, V., Hare, B., & Wrangham, R. 2008. Great apes prefer cooked foods. Journal of Human Evolution. 55, 340-348. [Download]


Burnham, T. & Hare, B. 2007. Engineering human cooperation: does involuntary neural activation increase public goods contributions? Human Nature. 18, 2, 88-108. [Download]

Hare, B., Melis, A., Woods, V., Hastings, S., & Wrangham, R. 2007. Tolerance allows bonobos to outperform chimpanzees in a cooperative task. Current Biology. 17, 619-623. [Download]

Hare, B. 2007. From nonhuman to human mind: what changed and why. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 16, 60-64. [Download]

Hare, B. 2007. Patience reveals chimpanzee cognitive development. Review of Cognitive Development in Chimpanzees. (Ed. by T. Matsuzawa, M. Tomonaga, & M. Tanaka). Nature Neuroscience. 10, 1077. [Download]

Herrmann, E., Call, J., Hernández-Lloreda, M., Hare, B., & Tomasello, M. 2007. Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. Science. 317, 1360-1365. [Download]

Rosati, A., Stevens, J., Hare, B., & Hauser, M. 2007. The evolutionary origins of human patience: temporal preferences in chimpanzees, bonobos, and human adults. Current Biology. 17, 1-6. [Download]

Tomasello, M., Hare, B., Call, J., & Leehman, H. 2007. Reliance on head versus eye gaze in great apes and human infants. Journal of Human Evolution. 52, 314-320. [Download]

Warneken, F., Hare, B., Melis, A., Hanus, D., & Tomasello, M. 2007. Spontaneous altruism by chimpanzees and children. Public Library of Science: Biology. 5, 1-7. [Download]


Hare, B., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. 2006. Chimpanzees deceive a human by hiding. Cognition. 101, 495-514. [Download]

Jensen, K., Hare, B., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. 2006. Are chimpanzees spiteful or altruistic when sharing food? Proceedings of the Royal Society: B. 273, 1013-1021. [Download]

Melis, A., Hare, B., & Tomasello, M. 2006. Chimpanzees recruit the best collaborators. Science. 311, 1297-1300. [Download]

Melis, A, Hare, B., & Tomasello, M. 2006. Engineering chimpanzee cooperation: social tolerance constrains cooperation. Animal Behaviour. 72, 275-286. [Download]


Call, J., Hare, B., Carpenter, M. & Tomasello, M. 2004. “Unwilling” versus “unable”: chimpanzees understanding of human intentional action. Developmental Science. 7, 488-498. [Download]

Hare, B. & Tomasello, M. 2004. Chimpanzees are more skillful in competitive than in cooperative cognitive tasks. Animal Behaviour. 68, 571-581. [Download]

Hare, B. 2004. Using comparative studies of primate and canid social cognition to model our Miocene minds. Dissertation. Department of Anthropology, Harvard University. [Download]

Tomasello, M., Call, J., & Hare, B. 2003. Chimpanzees versus humans: its not that simple. Trends in Cognitive Science. 7, 239-240. [Download]

Tomasello, M., Call, J., & Hare, B.  2003. Chimpanzees understand psychological states: the question is which ones and to what extent. Trends in Cognitive Science. 7, 153-156. [Download]

Hare, B., Addessi, E., Call, J., Tomasello, M. & Visalberghi, E. 2003. Do capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) know what conspecifics do and do not see? Animal Behaviour. 65, 131-142. [Download]

Hare, B. & Wrangham, R. 2002. Integrating two evolutionary models for the study of social cognition. In: The Cognitive Animal. (Ed. by M. Beckoff, C. Allen, & G. Burhgardt). THe MIT Press. 363-369. [Download]

Hare, B. 2001. Can competitive paradigms increase the validity of social cognitive experiments on primates? Animal Cognition. 4, 269-280. [Download]

Hare, B., Call, J. & Tomasello, M. 2001. Do chimpanzees know what conspecifics know? Animal Behaviour. 61, 139-151. [Download]

Tomasello, M., Hare, B. & Fogleman, T. 2001. The ontogeny of gaze following in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Animal Behaviour. 61, 335-343. [Download]

Hare, B., Call, J., Agnetta, B. & Tomasello, M. 2000. Chimpanzees know what conspecifics do and do not see. Animal Behaviour 59, 771-786. [Download]

Wrangham, R., Wilson, M., Hare, B. & Wolfe, N. 2000. Chimpanzee predation and the ecology of microbial exchange. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease. 12, 186-188. [Download]

Tomasello, M., Hare, B. & Agnetta, B. 1999. Chimpanzees follow gaze direction geometrically. Animal Behaviour. 58, 769-777. [Download]

Itakura, S., Agnetta, B., Hare, B. & Tomasello, M. 1999. Chimpanzee use of human and conspecific social cues to locate hidden food. Developmental Science. 2, 448-456. [Download]

Call, J., Hare, B. & Tomasello, M. 1998. Chimpanzee gaze following in an object choice task. Animal Cognition. 1, 89-99. [Download]

Tomasello, M., Call, J. & Hare, B. 1998. Five primate species follow the visual gaze of conspecifics. Animal Behaviour. 55, 1063-1069. [Download]