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In Press

Wobber, V. & Hare, B. in press. The evolution of human socio-cognitive development. In: The Development of Social Cognition. Banaji, M. & Gelman, S. (eds). Harvard Press. 


Bray, J., Krupenye, C., & Hare, B. 2014. Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) exploit information about what others can see but not what they can hear. Animal Cognition. doi: 10.1007/s10071-013-0705-0 [Download].

Cieri, R., Churchill, S., Franciscus, R., Tan, J., & Hare, B. Craniofacial Feminization, Social Tolerance, and the Origins of Behavioral Modernity. Current Anthropology. doi: 10.1086/677209 [Download]

MacLean, E., Hare, B., Nunn, C., Addessi, E., Amici, F., Anderson, R., Aureli, F., Baker, J., Bania, A., Barnard, A., Boogert, N., Brannon, E., Bray, E., Bray, J., Brent, L., Burkart, J., Call, J., Cantlon, J., Cheke, L., Clayton, N., Delgado, M., DiVinceti, L., Fujita, K., Herrmann, E., Hiramatsu, C., Jacobs, L., Jordan, K., Laude, J., Leimfruber, K., Messer, E., Moura, A., Ostojic, L., Picard, A., Platt. M., Plotnik, J., Range, F., Reader, S., Reddy, R., Sandel, A., Santos, L., Schumann, K., Seed, A., Sewall, K., Shaw, R., Slocombe, K., Su, Y., Takimoto, A., Tan, J., Tao, R., van Schaik, C., Viranyi, Z., Visalberghi, E., Wade, J., Watanabe, A., Widness, J., Young, J., Zentall, T., Zhao, Y. 2014. The evolution of self-control. PNAS. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1323533111 [Download]

Pontzer, H., Raichlen, D., Gordon, A., Schroepfer-Walker, K., Hare, B., O'Neill, M., Muldoon, K., Dunsworth, H., Wood, B., Isler, K., Burkart, J., Irwin, M., Shumaker, R., Lonsdorf, E., & Ross, S. 2014. Primate energy expenditure and life history. PNAS. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1316940111 [Download]

Rosati, A., Rodriguez, K., & Hare, B. 2014. The ecology of spatial memory in four lemur species. Animal Cognition. doi: 10.1008/s10071-014-0727-2 [Download]


Bray, E., MacLean, E., Hare, B. 2013. Context specificity of inhibitory control in dogs. Animal Cognition. doi:10.1007/s10071-013-0633-z [Download]

Herrmann, E., Keupp, S., Hare, B., Vaish, A., Tomasello, M. 2013. Direct and Indirect Reputation Formation in Nonhuman Great Apes and Human Children. Journal of Comparative Psychology. doi:10.1037/a0028929 [Download]

Maclean, E. & Hare, B. 2013. Spontaneous triadic engagement in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). 2013. Journal of Comparative Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0030935 [Download]

MacLean, E., Sandel, A., Bray, J., Oldenkamp, R., & Reddy, R. 2013. Group Size Predicts Social but Not Nonsocial Cognition in Lemurs. PLoS ONE 8(6):e66359. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066359 [Download]

Rosati, A. & Hare, B. 2013. Chimpanzees and Bonobos Exhibit Emotional Responses to Decision Outcomes. PLoS One. 8, e63058 [Download]

Tan, J. & Hare, B. 2013. Bonobos share with strangers. PLoS One. 8, e51922 [Download]

Wobber, V., Hare, B., Lipson, S., Wrangham, R., & Ellison, P. 2013. Different ontogenetic patterns of testosterone production reflect divergent male reproductive strategies in chimpanzees and bonobos. Physiology & Behavior. 116-117, 44-53. [Download]

Wobber, V., Herrmann, E., Hare, B., Wrangham, R., & Tomasello, M. 2013. Differences in the early cognitive development of children and great apes. Developmental Psychobiology. doi: 10.1002/dev.21125 [Download]


Hare, B, Wobber, V, & Wrangham, R. 2012. The self-domestication hypothesis: evolution of bonobo psychology is due to selection against aggression. Animal Behavior. 1-13. [Download]

MacLean, E., Matthews, L., Hare, B., Nunn, C., Anderson, R., Aureli, F., Brannon, E.,Call, J., Drea, C., Emery, N., Haun, D., Herrmann, E., Jacobs, L., Platt, M., Rosati, A., Sandel, A., Schroepfer, K., Seed, A., Tan, J., van Schaik, C., Wobber, V. 2011. How does cognition evolve?: phylogenetic comparative psychology. Animal Cognition. 15, 223-238. [Download]

Maclean, E & Hare, B. 2012. Bonobos and chimpanzees infer the target of an actor's attention. Animal Behaviour. 83, 345-353. [Download]

Nunn, C. & Hare, B. 2012. Pathogen flow: what we need to know. American Journal of Primatology. doi: 10.1002/ajp.22070. [Download]

Rosati, A. & Hare, B. Divergent spatial memory development in chimpanzees and bonobos. Developmental Science. 15(6), 840-853. [Download]

Rosati, A. & Hare, B. Decision-making across social contexts: competition increases risk-prone choices in chimpanzees and bonobos. Animal Behaviour. 84. 869-879. [Download]

Rosati, A., Wobber, V., Warneken, F., Melis, A., Herrmann, E., Kaminski, J., Tan, J., Krupenye, C., Schroepfer, K., Hare, B. 2012. Assessing the psychological health of captive and wild apes: a response to Ferdowsian et al. in press. Journal of Comparative Psychology. doi: 10.1037/a0029144. [Download]

Woods, V. & Hare, B. Think outside the lab:  African sanctuaries as a new resource for non-invasive research on great apes.  In: Encyclopedia of Applied Animal Behavior and Welfare (Ed. by D. Mills). CABI publishing.


Hare, B. 2011.  From hominoid to hominid mind: what changed and why. Annual Reviews of Anthropology. 40: 293-309.  [Download]

Hare, B. & Tan, J. 2011. What cooperative abilities did we inherit as an ape? The Primate Mind. De Waal, F. & Ferrari, P. (eds). Harvard Press. [Download]

Herrmann, E., Hare, B. Cisseski, J., Tomasello, M. 2011. The origins of human temperament: children avoid novelty more than other apes. Developmental Science. 14, 1393-1405. [Download]

Sandel, A., Maclean, E., Hare, B. 2011. Convergent evolution in the social cognitive abilities of lemurs. Animal Behaviour. 81, 925-931.  [Download]

Schroepfer, K., Rosati, A., Chartrand, T., Hare, B. 2011. Use of "entertainment" chimpanzees distorts public perception regarding their conservation status. PLoS One. 6, 26048. [Download]

Wobber, T., Hare, B. 2011. Psychological health of orphan bonobos and chimpanzees in African sanctuaries. PLoS One, 6, e17147. [Download]

Woods, V. & Hare, B. 2011. Bonobo but not chimpanzee infants use socio-sexual contact with peers. Primates. 52, 111-116. [Download]


Hare, B. Rosati, A. Breaur, J., Kaminski, J., Call, J., Tomasello, M. 2010. Dogs are more skilled than wolves with human social cues: a response to Udell et al (2008) and Wynne et al. (2008). Animal Behaviour. 79, e1-e6. [Download]

Hare, B. Kwetuenda, S.  2010.  Bonobos voluntarily share their own food with others.  Current Biology.  20, R230-231. [Download]

Herrmann, E., Hare, B. Call, J., & Tomasello, M.  2010.  Differences in the cognitive skills of bonobos and chimpanzees.  PLoS One.  5(8), e12438.  [Download]

Herrmann, E., Call, J., Hernández-Lloreda, M., Hare, B. , Tomasello, M. 2010.  Cognition in chimpanzees and children has different factor structure. Psychological Science. 21, 102-110 [Download]

Herrmann, E., Call, J., Hernández-Lloreda, M., Hare, B. , Tomasello, M. 2010.  The structure of individual differences in the cognitive abilities of children and chimpanzees. Psychological Science. 21(1) 102-110. [Download]

Melis, A., Warneken, F., & Hare, B.  2010.  Collaboration and helping in chimpanzees.  In: The Chimpanzee Mind (Ed. by E. Lonsdorf, S. Ross, & T. Matsuzawa).  Springer.  [Download]

Rosati, A. & Hare, B.  2010.  Chimpanzee and bonobos distinguish between risk and ambiguity.  Proceedings of Royal Society: Biology Letters[Download]

Rosati, A., & Hare, B.  2010.  Social cognition: From behavior-reading to mind-reading.  In: Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience (Ed. by G. Koob, M. Le Moal, & R. Thompson).  Erlbaum. 3, 263-268.  [Download]

Rosati, A., Santos, L., Hare, B.  2010. Primate social cognition: Thirty years after Premack and Woodruff.  In: Cognitive Neuroethology (Ed. by A. Gazenifar & M. Platt).  Oxford University Press.  117-142. [Download]

Vlamings, P., Hare, B., & Call, J.  2010.  Reaching around barriers:  The performance of great apes and 3- to 5-year-old children on an inhibitory control task.  Animal Cognition.  13, 273-285.  [Download]

Wobber, V., Wrangham, R. & Hare, B.  2010.  Application of the heterochrony framework to the study of behavior and cognition.  Communicative and Integrative Biology.  3(4) 1-2.  [Download]

Wobber, V., Wrangham, R., Hare, B. 2010. Evidence for delayed development of social behavior and cognition in bonobos relative to chimpanzees. Current Biology.20, 226-230. [Download]

Wobber, V., Hare, B., Maboto, J., Lipson, S. Wrangham, R., & Ellison, P.  2010.  Differential changes in steriod hormones before competition in bonobos and chimpanzees.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.  107(28): 12457-12462.  [Download]

Wobber, V., Wrangham, R., Hare, B. 2010. Bonobos exhibit delayed development of social behavior and cognition relative to chimpanzees. Current Biology. 20, 226-230. [Download]

Woods, V. & Hare, B.  2010.  Bonobo but not chimpanzee infants use socio-sexual contact with peers.  Primates.  [Download]


Hare, B. 2009. What is the effect of affect on bonobo and chimpanzee problem solving? The Neurobiology of the Umwelt: how living beings perceive the world (Ed. by A. Berthoz & Y. Christen).  Springer Press.  89-102.  [Download]

McIntyre, M., Herrmann, E., Wobber, V., Halbwax, M., Mohamba, C.,  deSousa, N., Atenica, R., Cox, D. & Hare, B.  2009.  Bonobos have more human-like second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D) than chimpanzees: a hypothesized indication of lower prenatal androgens.  Journal of Human Evolution.  56, 361-365.  [Download]

Melis, A., Hare, B., & Tomasello, M.  2009.  Chimpanzees negotiate in a bargaining game.  Evolution and Human Behaviour.  30, 381-392. [Download]

Rosati, A. & Hare, B.  2009.  Looking past the model species: diversity in gaze following skills across primates.  Current Opinion in Neurobiology.  19, 45-51.  [Download]

Wobber, V. & Hare, B.  2009.  Testing the social dog hypothesis: are dogs also more skilled than chimpanzees in non-communicative social tasks? Behavioral Processes.  81, 423-428.  [Download]

Woods, V. & Hare, B.  2009.  Out of our minds: how did Homo sapiens come down from the trees, and why did no one follow?  In: Innovative Science (Ed. by M. Brockman), pp. 170-184. Vintage Books.  [Download]


Hare, B.  2008.  Review of Baboon Metaphysics (By D. Cheney & R. Seyfarth).  Animal Behaviour.  76, 253-255.  [Download]

Heilbronner, S., Rosati, A., Stevens, J., Hare, B., & Hauser, M.  2008.  A fruit in the hand or two in the bush?  Ecological pressures select for divergent risk preferences in chimpanzees and bonobos.  Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biology Letters.  4, 246-249.  [Download]

Herrmann, E., Call, J., Hernández-Lloreda, M., Hare, B., & Tomasello, M. 2008.  Humans are valid experimenters for human-nonhuman ape comparisons.  Science.  319, 570. [Download]

Melis, A., Hare, B., & Tomasello, M.  2008.  Do chimpanzees reciprocate received favors?  Animal Behaviour.  76, 951-962.  [Download]

Ross, S., Lukas, K., Longsdorf, E., Stoinski,T.,  Hare, B.,  Shumaker R., & Goodall, J.  2008.  Inappropriate use and portrayal of chimpanzees.  Science.  319, 1487.  [Download]

Wobber, V., Hare, B., & Wrangham, R.  2008.  Great apes prefer cooked foods.  Journal of Human Evolution.  55, 340-348.  [Download]


Burnham, T. & Hare, B.  2007.  Engineering human cooperation: does involuntary neural activation increase public goods contributions?  Human Nature.  18, 2, 88 - 108.  [Download]

Hare, B., Melis, A., Woods, V., Hastings, S., & Wrangham, R.  2007. Tolerance allows bonobos to outperform chimpanzees in a cooperative task.  Current Biology.  17, 619-623[Download]

Hare, B.  2007.  From nonhuman to human mind: what changed and why. Current Directions in Psychological Science.  16, 60-64.  [Download]

Hare, B.  2007.  Patience reveals chimpanzee cognitive development. Review of Cognitive Development in Chimpanzees (Ed. by T. Matsuzawa,  M. Tomonaga, & M. Tanaka).  Nature Neuroscience.  10, 1077.  [Download]

Herrmann, E., Call, J., Hernández-Lloreda, M., Hare, B., & Tomasello, M. 2007.  Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: the cultural intelligence hypothesis.  Science.  317, 1360-1365.  [Download]

Rosati, A., Stevens, J., Hare, B., & Hauser, M.  2007.  The evolutionary origins of human patience: temporal preferences in chimpanzees, bonobos, and human adults.  Current Biology.  17, 1-6.  [Download]

Tomasello, M., Hare, B., Call, J., & Leehman, H.  2007.  Reliance on head versus eye gaze in great apes and human infants.  Journal of Human Evolution.  52, 314 - 320.  [Download]

Warneken, F., Hare, B., Melis, A., Hanus, D., & Tomasello, M.  2007. Spontaneous altruism by chimpanzees and children.  Public Library of Science: Biology.  5, 1-7.  [Download]


Hare, B., Call, J., & Tomasello, M.  2006.  Chimpanzees deceive a human by hiding. Cognition. 101, 495 - 514.  [Download]

Jensen, K., Hare, B., Call, J., & Tomasello, M.  2006.  Are chimpanzees spiteful or altruistic when sharing food? Proceedings of the Royal Society: B. 273, 1013-1021.  [Download]

Melis, A., Hare, B., & Tomasello, M.  2006.  Chimpanzees recruit the best collaborators.  Science.  311, 1297-1300.  [Download]

Melis, A, Hare, B., & Tomasello, M.  2006.  Engineering chimpanzee cooperation: social tolerance constrains cooperation.  Animal Behaviour.  72, 275 - 286.  [Download]


Call, J., Hare, B., Carpenter, M. & Tomasello, M.  2004.  “Unwilling” versus “unable”: chimpanzees understanding of human intentional action. Developmental Science.  7, 488 - 498.  [Download]

Hare, B. & Tomasello, M.  2004.  Chimpanzees are more skillful in competitive than in cooperative cognitive tasks.  Animal Behaviour. 68, 571-581.  [Download]

Hare, B.  2004.  Using comparative studies of primate and canid social cognition to model our Miocene minds.  Dissertation.  Department of Anthropology, Harvard University.  [Download]

Tomasello, M., Call, J., & Hare, B.  2003.  Chimpanzees versus humans: its not that simple.  Trends in Cognitive Science.  7, 239-240. [Download]

Tomasello, M., Call, J., & Hare, B.  2003.  Chimpanzees understand psychological states: the question is which ones and to what extent. Trends in Cognitive Science.  7, 153-156.  [Download]

Hare, B., Addessi, E., Call, J., Tomasello, M. & Visalberghi, E.  2003.  Do capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) know what conspecifics do and do not see? Animal Behaviour.  65, 131-142.  [Download]

Hare, B. & Wrangham, R.  2002.  Integrating two evolutionary models for the study of social cognition. In: The Cognitive Animal (Ed. by M. Beckoff,  C. Allen, & G. Burhgardt), pp. 363-369.  The MIT Press.  [Download]

Hare, B.  2001.  Can competitive paradigms increase the validity of social cognitive experiments on primates?  Animal Cognition.  4, 269-280. [Download]

Hare, B., Call, J. & Tomasello, M.  2001.  Do chimpanzees know what conspecifics know? Animal Behaviour.  61, 139-151.  [Download]

Tomasello, M., Hare, B. & Fogleman, T.  2001.  The ontogeny of gaze following in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Animal Behaviour.  61, 335-343.  [Download]

Hare, B., Call, J., Agnetta, B. & Tomasello, M.  2000.  Chimpanzees know what conspecifics do and do not see.  Animal Behaviour.  59, 771-786. [Download]

Wrangham, R., Wilson, M., Hare, B. & Wolfe, N.  2000.  Chimpanzee predation and the ecology of microbial exchange.  Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease.  12, 186-188.  [Download]

Tomasello, M., Hare, B. & Agnetta, B.  1999.  Chimpanzees follow gaze direction geometrically.  Animal Behaviour.  58, 769-777.  [Download]

Itakura, S., Agnetta, B., Hare, B. & Tomasello, M.  1999.  Chimpanzee use of human and conspecific social cues to locate hidden food. Developmental Science.  2, 448-456.  [Download]

Call, J., Hare, B. & Tomasello, M. 1998. Chimpanzee gaze following in an object choice task.  Animal Cognition. 1, 89-99.  [Download]

Tomasello, M., Call, J. & Hare, B. 1998.  Five primate species follow the visual gaze of conspecifics.  Animal Behaviour.  55, 1063-1069. [Download]

    • Bonobo
    • Photo Credit: Vanessa Woods
    • chimpanzee
    • Photo Credit: Vanessa Woods
    • Bonobos
    • Photo Credit: Vanessa Woods
    • chimp
    • Photo Credit: V. Woods
    • bonobo
    • Photo Credit: V. Woods
    • chimp
    • Photo Credit: V. Woods
    • bonobo
    • Photo Credit: V. Woods
    • chimpanzee
    • Photo Credit: Vanessa Woods
    • bonobo
    • Photo Credit: V. Woods
    • chimp
    • Photo Credit: V. Woods


Unpublished puzzle!  Watch the short video below. How do you interpret the behavior in the video?  Did Mimi feel empathy for her group member who just died? Why was she willing to risk her own safety to protect his body even though he was unrelated to her and only moved into the group a year before?