Pusey Lab



Anne Pusey, the James B. Duke Professor of evolutionary anthropology at Duke, is interested in understanding the evolution of sociality, social structure, and the patterns of competition, cooperation and social bonds in animal species, including humans. Most of her work has focused on social mammals: lions and chimpanzees. Pusey manages the Gombe Chimpanzee Project and, through the Jane Goodall Research Institute Center at Duke, curates the data collected by Jane Goodall at Gombe, Tanzania.


Jane Goodall Research Institute Center at Duke


Pusey oversees the Jane Goodall Research Institute Center at Duke which houses all the data collected by British primatologist Jane Goodall. The archive is made up of Goodall's original typed and handwritten field notes from her observations of chimpanzees for more than 50 years in Gombe, Tanzania. A major curatorial activity of the archive is the computerization of systematically collected daily data, incorporating it with related material into a relational database for scientific analysis.

For more information, visit: Jane Goodall Research Institute Center at Duke. For more information about Jane Goodall's current work, visit The Jane Goodall Institute.

Gombe Chimpanzee Project

For the last 20 years Pusey has worked almost exclusively on the long-term Gombe chimpanzee project at the Gombe National Park in Tanzania. She advises on the ongoing field study at Gombe and also advises the students working there. The study of a wide variety of questions is enabled through a combination of analysis of the long-term data and focused collection of new data in the field. Current projects in her research group include studies of female social relationships and female settlement patterns, and the importance of alliances in males. Pusey's team participates in collaborative work with colleagues at a number of other institutions on studies of life history, personality, and health, including studying the natural history of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz).


Anne Pusey

Steffen Foerster, Ph.D.


Lab Manager: Abigail Carder
Phone: 919-684-9739

Electronic versions of these papers are provided as a professional courtesy to ensure timely dissemination of academic work for individual and noncommercial purposes. Copyright and all rights therein reside with the respective copyright holders, as stated within each paper. These files may not be reposted without permission.


  • Feldblum JT, Manfredi S, Gilby IC, Pusey AE. 2018. The timing and causes of a unique chimpanzee community fission preceding Gombe’s “Four‐Year War”. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23462.
  • ​​​Walker KK, Walker C, Goodall J, Pusey AE. 2018. Maturation is prolonged and variable in female chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution.


  • ​Gilby IC, Machanda ZP, O’Malley RC, Murray CM, Lonsdorf EV, Walker KK, Mjungu DC, Otali E, Muller MN, Emery Thompson M, Pusey AE, Wrangham RW. 2017. Predation by female chimpanzees: toward an understanding of sex differences in meat acquisition in the last common ancestor of Pan and Homo. Journal of Human Evolution. 110, 82-94. Download
  • Walker KK, Rudicell RS, Li Y, Hahn B, Wroblewski E, Pusey AE. 2017. Chimpanzees breed with genetically dissimilar mates. Royal Society Open Science. 4, 1, 160422. Download


  • ​​​Foerster S, Franz M, Murray CM, Gilby IC, Feldblum J, Walker KK, Pusey AE. 2016. Chimpanzee females queue but males compete for social status. Scientific Reports. 6, 35404; doi: 10.1038/srep35404. Download


  • Wroblewski EE, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Rudicell RS, Ramirez MA, et al. (2015) Signature Patterns of MHC Diversity in Three Gombe Communities of Wild Chimpanzees Reflect Fitness in Reproduction and Immune Defense against SIVcpz. PLoS Biol 13(5): e1002144. Download
  • Plooij FX, van de Rijt-Plooij H, Fischer M, Wilson ML, Pusey A. 2015. An archive of longitudinal recordings of the vocalizations of adult Gombe chimpanzees. Scientific Data 2, Article number: 150027 ​doi:10.1038/sdata.2015.27. Download 
  • Foerster, S., McLellan, K., Schroepfer-Walker, K., Murray, C. M., Krupenye, K., Gilby, I. C., Pusey, A. E. 2015. Social bonds in the dispersing sex: partner preferences among adult female chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour, 105: 139 Download
  • Markham, A. C., Lonsdorf, E. V., Pusey, A. E., Murray, C. M. 2015. Maternal rank influences the outcome of aggressive interactions between immature chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour, 100: 192 Download
  • Foerster S, McLellan K, Schroepfer-Walker KK, Murray C, Krupenye C, Gilby I, Pusey A. 2015. Social bonds in the dispersing sex: partner preferences among adult female chimpanzees. Animal Behavior. 105, 139-152 Download


  • Moeller, A. H., Li, Y., Mpoudi Ngole, E.,  Ahuka-Mundeke, S., Lonsdorf. E. V., Pusey, A. E., Peeters, M., Hahn, B. H., Ochman, H. 2014. Rapid changes in the gut microbiome during human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111: 16431–16435, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1419136111. Download
  • Feldblum J, Wroblewski EE, Rudicell RS, Hahn BH, Cetinkaya-Rundel M, Paiva T, Pusey AE,  Gilby IC. 2014.  Sexually coercive male chimpanzees sire more offspring. Current Biology, 24, 2855–2860, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.10.039Download
  • Murray, C. M., Lonsdorf, E. V., Stanton, M. A., Wellens, K. R., Miller, J. A., Goodall, J., Pusey, A. E. 2014. Early Social Exposure in Wild Chimpanzees: Mothers with Sons are More Gregarious than Mothers with Daughters. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111 (51) 18106-18107. www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1409507111Download
  • Wilson, M. L., C. Boesch, B. Fruth, T. Furuichi, I. C. Gilby, C. Hashimoto, C. Hobaiter, G. Hohman, N. Itoh, K. Koops, J. Lloyd, T. Matsuzawa, J. C. Mitani, D. C. Mjungu, D. Morgan, R. Mundry, M. N. Muller, M. Nakamura, J. D. Pruetz, A. E. Pusey, J. Riedel, C. Sanz, A. M. Schel, N. Simmons, M. Waller, D. P. Watts, F. J. White, R. M. Wittig, K. Zuberbühler & R. W. Wrangham.  2014. Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts. Nature, 513, 414-417. Download
  • Tennie, C., O’Malley, R. C. & Gilby, I. C. 2014. Why do chimpanzees hunt? Considering the benefits and costs of acquiring and consuming vertebrate versus invertebrate prey. Journal of Human Evolution, 71, 38–45. Download
  • Stanton, M. A., Lonsdorf, E. V., Pusey, A. E., Goodall, J., & Murray, C. M. 2014. Maternal behavior by birth order in wild chimpanzees: Increased investment by first-time mothers. Current Anthropology, 55, 483-489. Download
  • Plooij, F. X., van de Rijt-Plooij, H., Fischer, M., & Pusey, A. 2014. Longitudinal recordings of the vocalizations of immature Gombe chimpanzees for developmental studies. Scientific Data, 1:140025. Download
  • Miller, J. A., Pusey, A. E., Gilby, I. C., Schroepfer-Walker, K., Markham, A. C., & Murray, C. M. 2014. Competing for space: female chimpanzees are more aggressive inside their core areas than outside. Animal Behaviour, 87: 147-152. Download
  • Liu, W., Li, Y., Shaw, K.S., Learn, G.H., Plenderleith, L., Malenke, J.A., Sundararaman, S.A., Ramirez, M.A., Crystal, P.A., Smith, A.G., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Ayouba, A., Locatelli, S., Esteban, A., Mouacha, F., Guichet, E., Butel, C., Ahuka-Mundeke, S., Inogwabini, B.-I., Ndjango, J.-B. N., Speede, S., Sanz, C.M., Morgan, D.B., Gonder, M.K., Kranzusch, P.J., Walsh, P.D., Georgiev, A.V., Muller, M.N., Piel, A.K., Stewart, F.A., Wilson, M.L., Pusey, A.E., Cui, L., Wang, Z., Färnert, A., Sutherland, C.J. Sutherland, C.J., Nolder, D., Hart, J.A., Hart, T.B., Bertolani, P., Gillis, A., LeBreton, M., Tafon, B., Kiyang, J., Djoko, C.F., Schneider, B.S., Wolfe, N.D., Mpoudi-Ngole, E., Delaporte, E., Carter, R., Culleton, R.L., Shaw, G.M., Rayner, J.C., Peeters, M., Hahn, B.H., & Sharp, P.M. (2014) African origin of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. Nat Commun, 5: 3346. Download


  • Pusey, A. and Schroepfer-Walker, K. 2013. Female Cooperation in Chimpanzees. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, vol. 368 no. 1631 20130077. Download
  • Alberts SC, Altmann J, Brockman DK, Cords M, Fedigan L, Pusey A, Stoinski T, Strier KB, Morris WF, Bronikowski AF. 2013. Reproductive cessation patterns in primates reveal that humans are distinct. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (33), 13440-13445. Download
  • Prado-Martinez, J., P. H. Sudmant, J. M. Kidd, H. Li, J. L. Kelley, B. Lorente-Galdos, K. R. Veeramah, A. E. Woerner, T. D. O'Connor, G. Santpere, A. Cagan, C. Theunert, F. Casals, H. Laayouni, K. Munch, A. Hobolth, A. E. Halager, M. Malig, J. Hernandez-Rodriguez, I. Hernando-Herraez, K. Prufer, M. Pybus, L. Johnstone, M. Lachmann, C. Alkan, D. Twigg, N. Petit, C. Baker, F. Hormozdiari, M. Fernandez-Callejo, M. Dabad, M. L. Wilson, L. Stevison, C. Camprubi, T. Carvalho, A. Ruiz-Herrera, L. Vives, M. Mele, T. Abello, I. Kondova, R. E. Bontrop, A. Pusey, F. Lankester, J. A. Kiyang, R. A. Bergl, E. Lonsdorf, S. Myers, M. Ventura, P. Gagneux, D. Comas, H. Siegismund, J. Blanc, L. Agueda-Calpena, M. Gut, L. Fulton, S. A. Tishkoff, J. C. Mullikin, R. K. Wilson, I. G. Gut, M. K. Gonder, O. A. Ryder, B. H. Hahn, A. Navarro, J. M. Akey, J. Bertranpetit, D. Reich, T. Mailund, M. H. Schierup, C. Hvilsom, A. M. Andres, J. D. Wall, C.D. Bustamante, M. F. Hammer, E. E. Eichler and T. Marques-Bonet. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature, 499: 471-475. Download
  • Moeller, A. H., Shilts, M., Li, Y., Rudicell, R. S., Lonsdorf, E. V., Pusey, A. E., Wilson, M. L., Hahn, B. H., & Ochman, H. 2013. SIV-induced instability of the chimpanzee gut microbiome. Cell Host & Microbe, 14: 340-5, 2013. Download
  • Gilby, I.C., Wilson, M.L., & Pusey, A.E. (2013). Ecology rather than psychology explains co-occurrence of predation and border patrols in male chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour, 86: 61-74. Download
  • Gilby, I.C., Brent, L.J.N., Wroblewski, E.E., Rudicell, R.S., Hahn, B.H., Goodall, J. & Pusey, A.E. (2013). Fitness benefits of coalitionary aggression in male chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 67: 373-381. Download


  • Degnan, P.H., Pusey, A.E., Lonsdorf, E.V., Goodall, J., Wroblewski, E.E., Wilson, M.L., Rudicell, R.S., Hahn, B.H., and Ochman, H. 2012. Factors associated with the diversification of the gut microbial communities within chimpanzees from Gombe National Park. Proceedings of the National Academy of Arts and Sciences, 109:13034-13039. Download
  • Gogarten JF, Brown LM, Chapman CA, Cords M, Doran-Sheehy D, Fedigan LM, Grine FE,  Perry S,  Pusey AE, Sterck EHM, Wich SA, Wright PC. 2012. Seasonal mortality patterns in non-human primates: Implications for variation in selection pressures across environments. Evolution, 66: 3252–3266. Download
  • Moeller, A. H., Degnan, P. H., Pusey, A. E., Wilson, M. L., Hahn, B. H., and Ochman, H. (2012). Chimpanzees and humans harbor compositionally similar gut enterotypes. Nat. Commun., 3: 1179. Download


  • Morris WF, Altmann J,  Brockman DK,  Cords M,  Fedigan LM,  Pusey AE,  Stoinski TS, Bronikowski AM,  Alberts SM,  Strier KB. 2011. Low Demographic Variability in Wild Primate Populations: Fitness Impacts of Variation, Covariation, and Serial Correlation in Vital Rates. American Naturalist 177, no. 1 january 2011 _E-Article, DOI: 10.1086/657443 PMC3800157. Download
  • Bronikowski AM, Altmann J, Brockman DK, Cords M, Fedigan LM, Pusey AE, Stoinski T, Morris WF, Strier KB, Alberts SC. 2011. Aging in the natural world: Comparative data reveal similar mortality patterns across primates. Science 331,1325-1328. PMC3396421. Download
  • Lonsdorf EV, Murray CM, Travis DA,  Gilby IC, Chosy J, Goodall J, Pusey AE. 2011. A retrospective analysis of factors correlated to chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) respiratory health at Gombe National Park. EcoHealth 8, 26–35, DOI: 10.1007/s10393-011-0683-0. Download


  • Langergraber KE, Boesch C, Inoue E, Inoue-Muruyama M, Mitani JC, Nishida T, Pusey A, Reynolds V, Schubert G, Wrangham RW, Wroblewski E, Vigilant L.  2010. Genetic and ‘cultural’ similarity in wild chimpanzees. Proc. Royal. Soc. B. 278:408-416 doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.1112. Download
  • Gillespie TR, Lonsdorf EV, Canfield EP. Meyer DJ, Nadler Y, Raphael J, Pusey AE, Pond J, Pauley J, Mlengeya T, and Travis DA. 2010. Demographic and Ecological Effects on Patterns of Parasitism in Eastern Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143, 534–544. Download
  • Strier, KB, Altmann J., Brockman DK, Bronikowski AM, Cords M,  Fedigan LM, Lapp H, Liu X,. Morris WF, Pusey AE, Stoinski TS, and Alberts SC. 2010. The Primate Life History Database: a unique shared ecological data resource. Methods in Ecology & Evolution 1, 199-211. Download
  • Jones, J.H., Wilson, M.L., Murray, C. and Pusey, A. 2010. Phenotypic quality influences fertility in Gombe chimpanzees. Journal of Animal Ecology, no. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2010.01687.x
  • Blinkova, O., Victoria, J., Li, Y., Keele, B.F., Sanz, C., Ndanjo, J.N., Peeters, M., Travis, D., Lonsdorf, E.V., Wilson, M.L., Pusey, A.E., Hahn, B.H., & Delwart, E.L.  2010.  Novel circular DNA viruses in stool samples of wild-living chimpanzees.  Journal of General Virology, 91, 74–86. Download
  • Gilby, I.C., Emery Thompson, M., Ruane, J.D., Wrangham, R.W. 2010. No evidence of short-term exchange of meat for sex among chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution 59: 44-53. 


  • Murray, CM, Lonsdorf, EV, Eberly, LY and Pusey, AE. 2009. Reproductive energetics in free-living female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). Behavioral Ecology, doi:10.1093/beheco/arp114 
  • Keele, B.F., Jones, J.H., Terio, K. A., Estes, J.D., Rudicell, R. S., Wilson, M. L., Li, Y., Learn, G.H., Beasley, M.T.,  Schumacher-Stankey, J., Wroblewski, E., Mosser, A., Raphael, J., Kamenya, S., Londsdorf, E.V., Travis, D.A., Mlengeya, T., Kinsel, M.J., Else, J.G., Silvestri, G., Goodall, J., Sharp, P.M., Shaw, G.M., Pusey, A.E., Hahn, B.H.. 2009. Increased Mortality and AIDS-like Immunopathology in Wild Chimpanzees Infected with SIVcpz. Nature, 460, 515-519. Download
  • Wroblewski, EE, Murray, CM, Keele, BF, Schumacher-Stankey, JC, Hahn, BH, Pusey, AE. (2009), Male dominance rank and reproductive success in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii. Animal Behaviour 77: 873-885. 
  • Tennie, C., Gilby, I.C., Mundry, R. (2009). The meat-scrap hypothesis: small quantities of meat may promote cooperative hunting in wild chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 63: 421-43. Download
  • Foster, M.W., Gilby, I.C., Murray, C.M., Johnson, A., Wroblewski, E.E. & Pusey, A.E. 2009. Alpha male chimpanzee grooming patterns: implications for dominance 'style'. American Journal of Primatology 71: 136-144. 


  • Emery Thompson, M., M. L. Wilson, G. Gobbo, M.N. Muller, and A.E. Pusey. 2008. Hyperprogesteronemia in Response to Vitex fischeri Consumption in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). American Journal of Primatology, 70:1064-71. Download
  • Liu, W., M. Worobey, Y. Li, B. F. Keele, F. Bibollet-Ruche, Y. Guo, P. A. Goepfert, M. L. Santiago, J. N. Ndjango, C. Neel, S. L. Clifford, C. Sanz, S. Kamenya, M. L. Wilson, A. E. Pusey, N. Gross-Camp, C. Boesch, V. Smith, K. Zamma, M. A. Huffman, J. Mitani, D. P. Watts, M. Peeters, G. M. Shaw, W. M. Switzer,, P. M. Sharp, & B. H. Hahn. 2008.  Molecular ecology and natural history of simian foamy virus infection in wild-living chimpanzees. PLoS Pathogens, 4(7):e1000097. Download
  • Pusey AE, Wilson ML, Collins DA. 2008. Human impacts, disease risk, and population dynamics in the chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. American Journal of Primatology, 70:738-744. Download
  • Williams, J.M., Lonsdorf, E.V., Wilson, M.L., Schumacher-Stankey, J, Goodall, J and Pusey A.E. 2008.  Causes of death in the chimpanzees of Gombe. American Journal of Primatology, 70:766-777. Download
  • Pusey, A.E., Murray, C.M., Wallauer, W.,  Wilson, M.L., Wroblewski, E., Goodall, J. 2008.  Severe Aggression among Female Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii at Gombe National Park, Tanzania.  International Journal of Primatology, 29: 949-973. Download
  • Emery Thompson, M, Stumpf, RM and Pusey AE. 2008.  Female Reproductive Strategies and Competition in Apes: An Introduction.  International Journal of Primatology, 29: 815-21. Download
  • Murray, C.M., Gilby, I.C., Mane, S.V. & Pusey, A.E.  2008. Male chimpanzees inherit maternal ranging patterns.  Current Biology, 18:20-24. Download


  • Murray, C.M., Mane, S.V.and Pusey, A.E. 2007.  Dominance rank influences female space use in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): Towards an ideal despotic distribution.  Animal Behaviour, 74:1795-1804. Download
  • Emery Thompson M, Jones JH, Pusey AE, Brewer-Marsden S, Goodall J, Marsden D, Matsuzawa T, Nishida T, Reynolds V, Sugiyama Y, Wrangham RW. 2007. Aging and fertility patterns in wild chimpanzees provide insights into the evolution of menopause.  Current Biology, 17: 1-7. Download
  • Takehisa,J., Kraus, M.H., Decker, J.M., Li, Y., Keele, B.F., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Zammit, K.P., Weng, Z., Santiago, M.L., Kamenya, S., Wilson, M.L., Pusey, A.E., Bailes, E., Sharp, P.M., Shaw, G.M. and Hahn, B.  2007. Generation of infectious molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency virus by synthesis of fecal viral consensus sequences. Journal of Virology, 81, 7463-7475. Download
  • Pusey,A.E., Pintea, L, Wilson, M.W., Kamenya, S. and Goodall, J. 2007. The contribution of long-term research at Gombe National Park to chimpanzee conservation. Conservation Biology, 21: 623-634. Download
  • Murray, C.M., Wroblewski, E. & Pusey, A.E.  2007. A new case of intra-community infanticide in the chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) of Gombe National Park.  International Journal of Primatology, 28: 23-37. Download